The Principles for Responsible

Management Education Collection

Oliver Laasch, Editor

Academic Ethos

Management

Building the Foundation

for Integrity in

Management Education

Agata Stachowicz-Stanusch

A CRME Publication

www .businessexpertpress .com

Academic Ethos

Management

Academic Ethos

Management

Building the Foundation for

Integrity in Management

Education

Agata Stachowicz-Stanusch

Academic Ethos Management: Building the Foundation for Integrity in

Management Education

Copyright © Business Expert Press, 2012.

Reviewer:

Charles Wankel, PhD

Professor of Management

St. John’ s University , New York

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any

means—electronic, mechanical, photocopy , recording, or any other

except for brief quotations, not to exceed 400 words, without the prior

permission of the publisher .

First published in 2012 by

Business Expert Press, LLC

222 East 46th Street, New York, NY 10017

www .businessexpertpress.com

ISBN-13: 978-1-60649-456-1 (paperback)

ISBN-13: 978-1-60649-457-8 (e-book)

DOI 10.4128/9781606494578

Business Expert Press Principles of Responsible

Management Education collection

Collection ISSN: Forthcoming (print)

Collection ISSN: Forthcoming (electronic)

Cover design by Jonathan Pennell

Interior design by Exeter Premedia Services Private Ltd.,

Chennai, India

First edition: 2012

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Printed in the United States of America.

For my daughter , Natalie

Abstract

This topical and much needed book constitutes an important part of

the debate on the integrity in an academic context as a sine qua non

of responsible management education. This discussion in management

education occurred partly in reaction to highly publicized corporate scandals

and instances of management misconduct that have eroded public

faith. Concomitantly , management scholars and educators have begun to

question the assumptions underlying the traditional management education

, which in their view not only contributed to a recent moral crisis

but has also failed to prepare students and executives for coping with the

responsible leadership challenges and ethical dilemmas that face managers

in contemporary corporations.

The past decade, which might be called an epoch of moral catastrophes

, sets for universities the stage for effectively performing their

missions through conscious and consequent incorporating the core values

of academic ethos into academic activities.

This book discusses with stimulating examples how universities

should bring alive their core values constituting academic ethos . Using

case studies and examples from universities from all over the world ,

this book offers what few other titles are able to offer : conceptual

framework of academic integrity based on Positive Academic Ethos , a

new , holistic approach involving developing academic integrity based

on human fulfillment and development of man ’ s virtuous nature as

well as practical advice and guidance , explaining in detail how administrators

and educators should discover , articulate , and institutionalize

core values of academic ethos into daily academic activities and create

a foundation for academy integrity . The universities , educators , and

instructors committed to socially responsible management education

will find many valuable tools and pragmatic strategies to effectively

spread practices of integrity based on academic ethos core values across

organizational institutions . It also provides valuable teaching case studies

and should be used by course leaders at undergraduate , master ’ s ,

and MBA level in all business schools .

Keywords

academic ethos , core values of academic ethos , academic integrity ,

responsible management education , academic ethos management , positive

academic ethos

Contents

Acknowledgments ................................................................................... xi

Introduction ........................................................................................ xiii

Chapter 1 The Erosion of Academic Ethos Quo Vadis Higher

Education? .........................................................................1

Chapter 2 Discovering and Developing the Core Values

of Academic Ethos ...........................................................19

Chapter 3 Enacting the Core Values of Academic Ethos ...................39

Chapter 4 Communicating Core Values of Academic Ethos .............61

Chapter 5 Maintaining Core Values of Academic Ethos ...................79

Chapter 6 Core Values Management at the University—Insights

from USA ........................................................................95

Chapter 7 Core Values Management at the University—Insights

from International Case Studies .....................................137

Chapter 8 Core Values Management at the World ’ s Oldest

Universities ....................................................................165

Chapter 9 Recommendations from Cases—Toward the Concept

of Academic Integrity Development by Academic

EthosManagement ........................................................201

Chapter 10 Positive Academic Ethos—the Frame for Integrity

in Managerial Education ................................................205

Conclusion .........................................................................................223

Notes ..................................................................................................229

References ...........................................................................................247

Index .................................................................................................263

Endorsements......................................................................................267

Acknowledgments

This book is a result of the efforts of many people whom I would like to

thank. I express my sincere appreciation to the following people for their

invaluable inputs and assistance in conducting research for this book:

J. Michael Bernstein, Wright State University , USA

Ásta Bjarnadóttir , Reykjavik University , Iceland

Katarzyna Frankowicz, Jagiellonian University in Krakow , Poland

Svafa Grönfeldt, Reykjavik University , Iceland

Steinn Jóhannsson, Reykjavik University , Iceland

Þóranna Jónsdóttir , Reykjavik University , Iceland

Matthias Kleinhempel, IAE Business School—Universidad Austral,

Argentina

Alfred Lewis, Hamline University , USA

Marcelo Paladino, IAE Business School—Universidad Austral, Argentina

Joseph A. Petrick, Wright State University , USA

Þröstur Olaf Sigurjónsson, Reykjavik University , Iceland

Robert Sweeney , Wright State University , USA

Marco Tavanti, DePaul University , USA

and the members of the Strategic Planning Committee from Hamline

University , USA

I would particularly like to acknowledge the reviewer of this book,

Professor Charles Wankel. His thoughtful suggestions truly enriched the

content.

To each of above I would like to say once again:

THANK YOU.

Agata Stachowicz-Stanusch

Introduction

Why Is a Book about Academic Ethos

Management Needed Now?

Why is it important to conduct scholarly studies of bolstering integrity

in the world of academia through the process of academic ethos management

? And why is now the appropriate time to do so? Following are some

compelling reasons.

First , over the past few years we have been witnesses to an ever-growing

interest among scholars , educators , and managers with regard to integrity

in business and management education . This movement is partly a

reaction to highly publicized corporate scandals and instances of management

misconduct that have eroded public faith . From the beginning of

the millennium , the business press has presented a growing list of corrupt

practices among various organizations ( Enron , WorldCom , Global Crossing

, Tyco , Quest , and Adelphia , to name a few ). Corruption seems to be

omnipresent in enterprises , nonprofit organizations , and even in religious

organizations . Moreover , corrupt behavior seems to be strongly connected

not only to individuals within organizations , but also to whole organizations

that more often become corrupt entities . That is why corruption

concerns not only particular enterprises , but also entire business sectors or

even nations . It seems to be justified to ask a question as to whether higher

education and especially business schools have forgotten their prime objective

: not only promoting the discovery and exchange of knowledge and

ideas , but also educating wise people who will be equipped with knowledge

and integrity . Questions also rise as to whether the academic environment

truly shapes the moral attitudes of young people and creates the

appropriate examples for them . Do the core values of academic ethos really

mold the behavior of an academic community ?

The time has come to redefine academic ethos in the context of recent

economic crises stemming from the unethical behavior of corporations;

xiv

INTRODUCTION

such behavior has fostered a growing distrust in interpersonal relations,

an atrophy of organizational bonds, and a decreasing level of intraorganizational

social capital. The new focus on academic ethos, redefining

core values of a higher school, should be one of the answers of academic

world for the corruption phenomenon and its proliferation within its

own environment.

Second, the quest for integrity in business and education is not only a

reaction to highly publicized corruption scandals, but also a result of the

expectations that stakeholders of contemporary corporations and their

leaders will take more active roles in the fight against the most important

problems in the world, such as environmental degradation, abuse of

human rights, and corruption.

Along with cultural and technological trends in the global business

environment, the economic crisis became a catalyst for the development

of a new person-centered perspective on business and education. This

perspective is based on positive psychology ,1 spiritual aspects of individuals

, and a fascination of scholarly management with the human brain

and intelligence. It is clear that universities throughout the world cannot

ignore this trend.

Inspiration for exploring academic ethos management also comes

from an awareness that, while integrity “is at the heart of what effective

business and education is all about,” future business leaders seem to have

a problem with the challenge of managing their businesses with integrity .

Related to this is the fact that we know very little about how universities

prepare managers and professionals for those challenges. There is also a

more popular thesis that the best way to develop the moral character of

future business leaders and to encourage them to behave with integrity is

by giving students the opportunity to study and work in an organization

with integrity: the university itself . 2 That is why the challenge now is to

search for answers to questions about the causes of academic ethos erosion

on the one hand, and for the ways of creating and developing integrity at

higher school on the other hand.

Third, in today ’ s world of local society , where an organization ’ s borders

become more and more transparent, as well as in times of global

crisis, a deep understanding of academic ethos core values and the best

practices of managing them is especially important; such studies may

INTRODUCTION xv

show how individuals, groups, organizations, and whole societies can promote

a sense of purposefulness, direction, meaning, and appropriate ways

of creating moral frameworks for ethical conduct in a world of constant

change.

Fourth, the fascination with the theme of integrity , which is clearly

visible in the academic world as well as in business, is connected with the

intensified interest in core values. Since the launch of Porras and Collins ’ s

book Built to Last,3 this fascination has been confirmed by numerous

research and scientific elaborations. The authors focus on the importance

and crucial role of values in managing contemporary organizations,4

emphasizing the fact that the oldest organizations managed by core values

are not Sony , American Express, Disneyland, DuPont, or Marriot but

churches, armies, and universities. Numerous higher schools are proud

of their core values and present them to their employees, students, and

stakeholders. Walls in many campuses are adorned with placards expressing

those core values, which are also frequently included in the first pages

of many academic publications. Though, the role and influence of these

core values can appear restricted to these superficial actions. True core

values seem dead, covered with the dust of time, forgotten. They provoke

cynicism and laughter among students and employees as they are not

transferrable to the real day-to-day activity of a higher school. Consequently

, decisions made by a university ’ s authorities do not fit declared

core values; they do not create a culture of internal integrity at a school as

much as they foster a culture of cynicism and a lack of trust in interpersonal

relations. This, in turn, causes the atrophy of organizational bonds

and the decrease of social capital inside a university .

It is time for a change.

Fifth, core values of academic ethos are the core of cultural identity ,

which plays a crucial role in the development of today ’ s universities.

Cultural integrity is a particular logic of transferring academic ethos core

values into a university ’ s development behaviors; it is the university ’ s individual

paradigm, typical for a given higher school.

We should be aware that university does not simple exist; rather it

happens, becomes, and transforms. For a contemporary university , it

is the consciousness and stability of its academic ethos core values that

condition the way it evolves.

xvi

INTRODUCTION

With these motivations in mind, I have designed this book to achieve

the following goals:

1. to develop the conceptual framework of academic integrity based on

positive academic ethos;

2. to present a new , holistic approach involving developing academic

integrity based on human fulfillment and development of man ’ s

virtuous nature;

3 . to provide empirically grounded , theoretical insights for redefining academic

ethos as a result of the last economic crisis stemming from the

unethical behavior of contemporary organizations and their leaders ;

4. to formulate the assumptions (guidelines) for integrity development

at the higher school through the process of managing core values of

academic ethos;

5. to formulate recommendations for developing academic integrity

through the process of managing core values of academic ethos, based

on conducted qualitative research (case study) in deliberately chosen

universities from different parts of the world (North America, South

America, Europe);

6. to describe the process of academic ethos management and identify

its particular phases and their components;

7. to provide particular methods and tools for managing the core values

of academic ethos as the attitude for the construction of academic

integrity .

I have organized these goals in 10 chapters.

Chapter 1, “The Erosion of Academic Ethos—Quo Vadis Higher

Education?” focuses on the definition of academic ethos and the core

values that constitute it for management of the contemporary university .

The chapter also examines sources of academic ethos erosion and the steps

that should be taken for its redefinition in the twenty-first century .

Chapter 2, “Discovering and Developing the Core Values of Academic

Ethos,” offers detailed description of the first phase of the process of academic

ethos management. We may learn not only how to discover the

values of academic ethos and how to define them in terms of desirable

behavior but also which type of conduct threatens the particular values of

INTRODUCTION xvii

academic ethos. This chapter is replete with examples of core value definitions

extracted from higher schools throughout the world.

Chapter 3, “Enacting the Core Values of Academic Ethos,” provides

specific guidelines for enacting the core values of academic ethos through

reflecting and supporting the core values of a university ’ s goals, objectives

, measures, and through familiarization with a university ’ s policies,

procedures, and codes. By doing this, a university forms a dialogue at the

institutional, classroom, and individual levels around fundamental values

of academic ethos and enhances the conduct of academic community in

performing their duties in pursuit of academic ethos.

Chapter 4, “Communicating Core Values of Academic Ethos,” presents

examples from around the world showing the spectrum of tools

used in the process of communicating values of academic ethos, ranging

from age-old traditions and cultural models to academic publicity , architectural

, physical, and prestige symbols, and beyond to contemporary

instruments based on information technologies such as chatterbots.

Chapter 5 , “ Maintaining Core Values of Academic Ethos ,” uses concrete

examples to describe elements of maintaining core values of academic

ethos through recruitment , core values explanation , training on

core values in and out of the classroom for students , and consistent ,

updated training for employees . The goal is to study the importance of

instilling core values of academic ethos over simple behavioral compliance

of academic community members with the behaviors ascribed to

core values .

The subsequent chapters present a section devoted to the description

of the process of managing academic ethos in deliberately chosen

higher schools from the North America (United States), South America

(Argentina), and Europe (Iceland, Poland). Each case study lists the main

facts about a particular higher school and presents a brief history; then,

based on direct research (interviews) and internal documentation analysis

, the core values of academic ethos are characterized and their specific

implementations within a particular school are enumerated.

Chapter 6, “Core Values Management at the University—Insights

from USA,” highlights the process of academic ethos management at two

American universities (DePaul University and Wright State University)

that are different in terms of its form of ownership , age, and the phase

xviii

INTRODUCTION

of development as well as the core ideologies constituting their values of

academic ethos.

Chapter 7 , “ Core Values Management at the University — Insights

from International Case Studies ,” describes the process of academic ethos

management coming from the merger of universities ( Reykjavik University

and Technical University of Iceland ) as well as a relatively young

Argentinean higher school ( IAE Business School at Austral University ),

which is placed among world ’ s top business schools in many prestigious

rankings .

Chapter 8, “Core Values Management at the World ’ s Oldest

Universities,” is devoted to descriptions of academic ethos management at

higher schools that are proud of their long-standing traditions. This chapter

looks at academic ethos management at one of the oldest European

universities ( Jagiellonian University) and at the oldest 200-year-old

university in Minnesota (Hamline University).

The next chapter , “Recommendations from Cases—Toward the

Concept of Academic Integrity Development by Academic Ethos Management

,” presents guidelines for the construction and development of

academic integrity by managing the core values of academic ethos based

on the conclusions and recommendations of research (case studies).

The last chapter , “ Positive Academic Ethos — the Frame for Integrity

in Managerial Education ,” is a synthesis of the considerations about the

role of managing the core values of academic ethos for the construction

and development of academic integrity . Previous considerations of the

author as well as conclusions and recommendations from research enable

the identification of the phases of academic ethos management process ,

including the indication of components constituting each particular phase .

This chapter presents alternatives to current attitudes , examining theories of

higher school management toward the creation of academic integrity based

on Positive Organizational Scholarship and virtue ethics . The conceptual

framework on integrity based on positive academic ethos is also presented .

The author believes that the university as an institution and the

scholars and academic teachers are responsible not only for discovering

the truth and delivering knowledge but also for educating citizens who

will make this world a better place. Such visionary aspiration cannot be

achieved without integrity within academic world.

CHAPTER 1

The Erosion of Academic

Ethos

Quo Vadis Higher Education?

The Crisis of Academic Ethos—Fact or Hype?

The university is one of the oldest institutions in the world. Even a commercial

enterprise with a bold 500-year history pales by comparison.

The first university was founded in 849 AD in Constantinople. Two of

the oldest universities in the Western world, Bologna University and the

University of Paris, are steeped in more than 1,000 years of tradition.

The success of a university that has existed for many centuries and

is still developing without any noticeable constraints is recognized as a

luxury available to only a few enterprises. It is an extraordinary phenomenon

that, when it occurs, is recognized with respect, and its sources,

origin, and history are scrutinized with attention. We are so sure that a

university ’ s longevity and development are a result of exceptional talent,

leadership , or even unexpected luck, and we do not ask basic questions:

What made, makes, and will make universities the great ones? What

determines their existence and development? What becomes autonomic

in a higher school, what separates from the particular persons and outlives

them? Why do the aged universities exist despite the turbulent changes in

their environments?

First of all, universities are highly organized groups. This organization

is one of the most persistent attributes of a university . 1 However , a much

more important attribute not only of the persistence, but also of its development

are the known and codified core values in the form of academic

ethos. These values define a university ’ s identity and express particular

modes of its conduct. The university not only exists but also evolves.